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In Situ Water Quantification in Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents Using Portable Raman Spectroscopy

Abstract : Raman spectroscopy is a label-free, non-destructive, non-invasive analytical tool that provides insight into the molecular composition of samples with minimum or no sample preparation. The increased availability of commercial portable Raman devices presents a potentially easy and convenient analytical solution for day-to-day analysis in laboratories and production lines. However, their performance for highly specific and sensitive analysis applications has not been extensively evaluated. This study performs a direct comparison of such a commercially available, portable Raman system, with a research grade Raman microscope system for the analysis of water content of Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NADES). NADES are renewable, biodegradable and easily tunable “green” solvents, outcompeting existing organic solvents for applications in extraction from biomass, biocatalysis, and nanoparticle synthesis. Water content in NADES is, however, a critical parameter, affecting their properties, optimal use and extraction efficiency. In the present study, portable Raman spectroscopy coupled with Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) is investigated for rapid determination of water content in NADES samples in situ, i.e., directly in glassware. Three NADES systems, namely Betaine Glycerol (BG), Choline Chloride Glycerol (CCG) and Glucose Glycerol (GG), containing a range of water concentrations between 0% (w/w) and 28.5% (w/w), were studied. The results are directly compared with previously published studies of the same systems, using a research grade Raman microscope. PLSR results demonstrate the reliability of the analysis, surrendering R2 values above 0.99. Root Mean Square Errors Prediction (RMSEP) of 0.6805%, 0.9859% and 1.2907% w/w were found for respectively unknown CCG, BG and GG samples using the portable device compared to 0.4715%, 0.3437% and 0.7409% w/w previously obtained by analysis in quartz cuvettes with a Raman confocal microscope. Despite the relatively higher values of RMSEP observed, the comparison of the percentage of relative errors in the predicted concentration highlights that, overall, the portable device delivers accuracy below 5%. Ultimately, it has been demonstrated that portable Raman spectroscopy enables accurate quantification of water in NADES directly through glass vials without the requirement for sample withdrawal. Such compact instruments provide solvent and consumable free analysis for rapid analysis directly in laboratories and for non-expert users. Portable Raman is a promising approach for high throughput monitoring of water content in NADES that can support the development of new analytical protocols in the field of green chemistry in research and development laboratories but also in the industry as a routine quality control tool.
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Submitted on : Thursday, September 16, 2021 - 10:28:47 AM
Last modification on : Friday, September 17, 2021 - 3:08:52 AM

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Suha Elderderi, Laura Wils, Charlotte Leman-Loubière, Hugh Byrne, Igor Chourpa, et al.. In Situ Water Quantification in Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents Using Portable Raman Spectroscopy. Molecules, MDPI, 2021, 26 (18), pp.5488. ⟨10.3390/molecules26185488⟩. ⟨hal-03346166⟩

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