W. Palm and T. De-lange, How Shelterin Protects Mammalian Telomeres, Annual Review of Genetics, vol.42, issue.1, pp.301-334, 2008.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.genet.41.110306.130350

T. De-lange, How Telomeres Solve the End-Protection Problem, Science, vol.326, issue.5955, pp.948-952, 2009.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1170633

S. Artandi and R. Depinho, Telomeres and telomerase in cancer, Carcinogenesis, vol.31, issue.1, pp.9-18, 2010.
DOI : 10.1093/carcin/bgp268

J. Nandakumar and T. Cech, Finding the end: recruitment of telomerase to telomeres, Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, vol.39, issue.2, pp.69-82, 2013.
DOI : 10.1038/nrm3505

T. Bryan, A. Englezou, L. Dalla-pozza, M. Dunham, and R. Reddel, Evidence for an alternative mechanism for maintaining telomere length in human tumors and tumor-derived cell lines, Nature Medicine, vol.11, issue.11, pp.1271-1274, 1997.
DOI : 10.1101/gad.10.14.1822

A. Cesare and R. Reddel, Alternative lengthening of telomeres: models, mechanisms and implications, Nature Reviews Genetics, vol.106, issue.5, pp.319-330, 2010.
DOI : 10.1038/nrg2763

S. Durant, Telomerase-Independent Paths to Immortality in Predictable Cancer Subtypes, Journal of Cancer, vol.3, pp.67-82, 2012.
DOI : 10.7150/jca.3965

C. Heaphy, A. Subhawong, S. Hong, M. Goggins, E. Montgomery et al., Prevalence of the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Telomere Maintenance Mechanism in Human Cancer Subtypes, The American Journal of Pathology, vol.179, issue.4, pp.1608-1615, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ajpath.2011.06.018

C. Rodriguez, F. Eberhart, C. Hebbar, S. Offerhaus, G. Mclendon et al., Altered telomeres in tumors with ATRX and DAXX mutations, Science, vol.333, p.425, 2011.

J. Schwartzentruber, A. Korshunov, X. Liu, D. Jones, E. Pfaff et al., Driver mutations in histone H3.3 and chromatin remodelling genes in paediatric glioblastoma, Jabado N. 2012. Driver mutations in histone H3.3 and chromatin remodelling genes in paediatric glioblastoma, pp.226-231
DOI : 10.1038/nature10833

N. Bérubé, ATRX in chromatin assembly and genome architecture during development and disease, Biochemistry and Cell Biology, vol.89, issue.5, pp.435-444, 2011.
DOI : 10.1139/o11-038

K. Ritchie, C. Seah, J. Moulin, C. Isaac, F. Dick et al., Loss of ATRX leads to chromosome cohesion and congression defects, The Journal of Cell Biology, vol.12, issue.2, pp.315-324, 2008.
DOI : 10.1083/jcb.139.2.435

S. Sampl, S. Pramhas, C. Stern, M. Preusser, C. Marosi et al., Expression of Telomeres in Astrocytoma WHO Grade 2 to 4: TERRA Level Correlates with Telomere Length, Telomerase Activity, and Advanced Clinical Grade, Translational Oncology, vol.5, issue.1, pp.56-65, 2012.
DOI : 10.1593/tlo.11202

O. Callaghan, N. Dhillon, V. Thomas, P. Fenech, and M. , A quantitative real-time PCR method for absolute telomere length, BioTechniques, vol.44, issue.6, pp.807-809, 2008.
DOI : 10.2144/000112761

Z. Deng, Z. Wang, N. Stong, R. Plasschaert, A. Moczan et al., A role for CTCF and cohesin in subtelomere chromatin organization, TERRA transcription, and telomere end protection, The EMBO Journal, vol.318, issue.21, pp.4165-4178, 2012.
DOI : 10.1038/emboj.2012.266

H. Episkopou, S. Kyrtopoulos, P. Sfikakis, M. Fousteri, M. Dimopoulos et al., Association between Transcriptional Activity, Local Chromatin Structure, and the Efficiencies of Both Subpathways of Nucleotide Excision Repair of Melphalan Adducts, Cancer Research, vol.69, issue.10, pp.4424-4433, 2009.
DOI : 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-3489

J. Henson, Y. Cao, L. Huschtscha, A. Chang, A. Au et al., DNA C-circles are specific and quantifiable markers of alternative-lengthening-of-telomeres activity, Nature Biotechnology, vol.3, issue.12, pp.1181-1186, 2009.
DOI : 10.1038/nbt.1587

T. Yeager, A. Neumann, A. Englezou, L. Huschtscha, J. Noble et al., Telomerase-negative immortalized human cells contain a novel type of promyelocytic leukemia (PML) body, Cancer Res, vol.59, pp.4175-4179, 1999.

Y. Jiao, P. Killela, Z. Reitman, A. Rasheed, C. Heaphy et al., and IDH1 mutations refine the classification of malignant gliomas, Oncotarget, vol.3, pp.1709-722

K. Kannan, A. Inagaki, J. Silber, D. Gorovets, J. Zhang et al., Whole-exome sequencing identifies ATRX mutation as a key molecular determinant in lower-grade glioma, Oncotarget, vol.3, issue.10, pp.1194-1203, 2012.
DOI : 10.18632/oncotarget.689

X. Liu, N. Gerges, A. Korshunov, N. Sabha, D. Khuong-quang et al., Frequent ATRX mutations and loss of expression in adult diffuse astrocytic tumors carrying IDH1/IDH2 and TP53 mutations, Acta Neuropathologica, vol.360, issue.8, pp.615-625
DOI : 10.1007/s00401-012-1031-3

D. Nguyen, C. Heaphy, R. De-wilde, B. Orr, Y. Odia et al., Molecular and Morphologic Correlates of the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Phenotype in High-Grade Astrocytomas, Brain Pathology, vol.360, issue.3, pp.237-243, 2013.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1750-3639.2012.00630.x

K. Bower, C. Napier, S. Cole, R. Dagg, L. Lau et al., Loss of Wild-Type ATRX Expression in Somatic Cell Hybrids Segregates with Activation of Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres, PLoS ONE, vol.1, issue.11, 2012.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0050062.s001

C. Lovejoy, W. Li, S. Reisenweber, S. Thongthip, J. Bruno et al., Loss of ATRX, Genome Instability, and an Altered DNA Damage Response Are Hallmarks of the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Pathway, PLoS Genetics, vol.12, issue.7, p.1002772
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002772.s010

D. Silvestre, P. Marti, J. Hoffschir, F. Studler, J. Mouthon et al., Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres in Human Glioma Stem Cells, STEM CELLS, vol.64, issue.3, pp.440-451, 2011.
DOI : 10.1002/stem.600

C. Heaphy, K. Schreck, E. Raabe, X. Mao, P. An et al., A glioblastoma neurosphere line with alternative lengthening of telomeres, Acta Neuropathologica, vol.3, issue.4, pp.607-608, 2013.
DOI : 10.1007/s00401-013-1174-x

A. Borodovsky, A. Meeker, E. Kirkness, Q. Zhao, C. Eberhart et al., A model of a patient-derived IDH1 mutant anaplastic astrocytoma with alternative lengthening of telomeres, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol.20, issue.3, pp.479-487, 2015.
DOI : 10.1007/s11060-014-1672-2

D. Garrick, V. Samara, T. Mcdowell, A. Smith, L. Dobbie et al., A conserved truncated isoform of the ATR-X syndrome protein lacking the SWI/SNF-homology domain, Gene, vol.326, pp.23-34, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.gene.2003.10.026

A. Goldberg, L. Banaszynski, K. Noh, P. Lewis, S. Elsaesser et al., Distinct Factors Control Histone Variant H3.3 Localization at Specific Genomic Regions, Cell, vol.140, issue.5, pp.678-691, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cell.2010.01.003

N. Arnoult, A. Van-beneden, and A. Decottignies, Telomere length regulates TERRA levels through increased trimethylation of telomeric H3K9 and HP1??, Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, vol.106, issue.9, pp.948-956, 2012.
DOI : 10.1038/nsmb.2364

M. Levy, K. Kernohan, Y. Jiang, and N. Bérubé, ATRX promotes gene expression by facilitating transcriptional elongation through guanine-rich coding regions, Human Molecular Genetics, vol.24, issue.7, pp.1824-1835, 2015.
DOI : 10.1093/hmg/ddu596

C. Azzalin, P. Reichenbach, L. Khoriauli, E. Giulotto, and J. Lingner, Telomeric Repeat Containing RNA and RNA Surveillance Factors at Mammalian Chromosome Ends, Science, vol.318, issue.5851, pp.798-801, 2007.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1147182

Z. Deng, J. Norseen, A. Wiedmer, H. Riethman, and P. Lieberman, TERRA RNA Binding to TRF2 Facilitates Heterochromatin Formation and ORC Recruitment at Telomeres, Molecular Cell, vol.35, issue.4, pp.403-413, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.molcel.2009.06.025

URL : http://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2009.06.025

H. Episkopou, I. Draskovic, A. Van-beneden, G. Tilman, M. Mattiussi et al., Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres is characterized by reduced compaction of telomeric chromatin, Nucleic Acids Research, vol.42, issue.7, pp.4391-4405, 2014.
DOI : 10.1093/nar/gku114

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01332600

K. Kernohan, Y. Jiang, D. Tremblay, A. Bonivissuto, J. Eubanks et al., ATRX Partners with Cohesin and MeCP2 and Contributes to Developmental Silencing of Imprinted Genes in the Brain, Developmental Cell, vol.18, issue.2, pp.191-202, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.devcel.2009.12.017

M. Law, K. Lower, H. Voon, J. Hughes, D. Garrick et al., ATR-X Syndrome Protein Targets Tandem Repeats and Influences Allele-Specific Expression in a Size-Dependent Manner, Cell, vol.143, issue.3, pp.367-378, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cell.2010.09.023

L. Wong, J. Mcghie, M. Sim, M. Anderson, S. Ahn et al., ATRX interacts with H3.3 in maintaining telomere structural integrity in pluripotent embryonic stem cells, Genome Research, vol.20, issue.3, pp.351-360, 2010.
DOI : 10.1101/gr.101477.109

L. Watson, L. Solomon, J. Li, Y. Jiang, M. Edwards et al., Atrx deficiency induces telomere dysfunction, en- ATRX and Telomeres, 2013.

F. Chang, J. Mcghie, F. Chan, M. Tang, M. Anderson et al., PML bodies provide an important platform for the maintenance of telomeric chromatin integrity in embryonic stem cells, Nucleic Acids Research, vol.41, issue.8, pp.4447-4458, 2013.
DOI : 10.1093/nar/gkt114

S. Nergadze, B. Farnung, H. Wischnewski, L. Khoriauli, V. Vitelli et al., CpG-island promoters drive transcription of human telomeres, RNA, vol.15, issue.12, pp.2186-2194, 2009.
DOI : 10.1261/rna.1748309

R. Flynn, K. Cox, M. Jeitany, H. Wakimoto, A. Bryll et al., Alternative lengthening of telomeres renders cancer cells hypersensitive to ATR inhibitors, Science, vol.347, issue.6219, pp.273-277, 2015.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1257216

R. Flynn, R. Centore, O. Sullivan, R. Rai, R. Tse et al., TERRA and hnRNPA1 orchestrate an RPA-to-POT1 switch on telomeric single-stranded DNA, Nature, vol.269, issue.7339, pp.532-536, 2011.
DOI : 10.1038/nature09772

D. Conomos, R. Reddel, and H. Pickett, NuRD???ZNF827 recruitment to telomeres creates a molecular scaffold for homologous recombination, Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, vol.27, issue.9, 2014.
DOI : 10.1038/nsmb.2877

M. Bhattacharyya and A. Lustig, Telomere dynamics in genome stability, Trends in Biochemical Sciences, vol.31, issue.2, pp.114-122, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tibs.2005.12.001

D. Conomos, H. Pickett, and R. Reddel, Alternative lengthening of telomeres: remodeling the telomere architecture, Frontiers in Oncology, vol.3, p.27, 2013.
DOI : 10.3389/fonc.2013.00027

D. Picketts, D. Higgs, S. Bachoo, D. Blake, O. Quarrell et al., ATRX encodes a novel member of the SNF2 family of proteins: mutations point to a common mechanism underlying the ATR-X syndrome, Human Molecular Genetics, vol.5, issue.12, pp.1899-1907, 1996.
DOI : 10.1093/hmg/5.12.1899

S. Le, J. Moore, J. Haber, and C. Greider, RAD50 and RAD51 define two pathways that collaborate to maintain telomeres in the absence of telomerase, Genetics, vol.152, pp.143-152, 1999.

V. Hakin-smith, D. Jellinek, D. Levy, T. Carroll, M. Teo et al., Alternative lengthening of telomeres and survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme, The Lancet, vol.361, issue.9360, pp.836-838, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)12681-5

G. Ulaner, H. Huang, J. Otero, Z. Zhao, L. Ben-porat et al., Absence of a telomere maintenance mechanism as a favorable prognostic factor in patients with osteosarcoma, Cancer Res, vol.63, pp.1759-1763, 2003.

O. Sullivan, R. Arnoult, N. Lackner, D. Oganesian, L. Haggblom et al., Rapid induction of alternative lengthening of telomeres by depletion of the histone chaperone ASF1, Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, vol.59, issue.2, pp.167-174, 2014.
DOI : 10.1038/nsmb.2245